Where are you, in your personal financial situation, with your family, business, and community? Where do you want to be?

There is a tendency to assess according to THEIR criteria, not ours. Many conventional economic measures will ignore such important concerns as stability (the need to raise children and care for elders), independence, satisfying work, the welfare of families, communities, and neighborhoods, and ecosystem function.

Douthwaite's advice

Changes needed

  1. We must begin to use local resources to meet community needs rather than the wants of markets far away.
  2. World prices must not determine what we produce.
  3. Our key production processes need to be run entirely without inputs from the world system.


  1. An independent currency system
  2. An independent banking system
  3. Local energy self-sufficiency
  4. Local food and fiber production


As with the ecosystem, this course is not about what the economy produces -- such as income, jobs, or development. It focuses on how the economy operates.

As with ecosystem function, the economy of any place may not have solid boundaries, but it will be localized. Most people buy common groceries and supplies in their neighborhood. Most people earn money by working nearby, or selling what they produce in nearby markets.

  1. local multiplier, effective
  2. multiple-use, stacking enterprises, choice-enhancing, diversifying, innovative
  3. entrepreneurial, cooperative/competitive, relationship-enhancing
  4. self-sufficient, resilient, place-enhancing
  5. effective at generating new wealth without hurting principal


See for a description of how to use their LM3 tool (local multiplier, 3 steps) to assess the multiplier of a business, family, or collection of businesses.

Ithaca Hours

how a local currency works


aspects of one whole

Knowledge and ideology. How none of these pattern maps fit into established categories of expertise either in government or universities. They cross or involve nearly the whole shebang. How the concept of zones or domains interferes with our understanding of economic function and pattern.

Again, zillions going to parts.