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Glossary of terms for managing wholes
herd effect - The impact of a excited or concentrated herd of large animals on soil and vegetation. Trampling and hoof action knock down standing vegetation and grind it into soil, along with manure and plant seeds. Herd effect is not stock density -- a large number of animals spread out and walking calmly will not produce herd effect (or much animal impact), whereas a small group of excited animals will. However, some psychological effect of a large, dense herd makes it produce more herd effect than a small herd at the same density. Applied too long or to frequently, herd effect tends to pulverize most soils and cause excessive compaction.
According to Allan Savory, the amount of herd effect produced by even large herds of domestic stock at high concentration is small compared to the action of wild herds chased by predators -- minutes per day versus hours per day. However, some holistic managers (especially in southern Africa) are producing good effects on their brittle, high-production land by using very large herds at very high densities with very frequent moves -- a herd of 2-3,000 cattle moved every hour, for instance.
Related terms: animal impact
holism - The notion that the universe and especially living nature is most usefully seen in terms of interacting wholes that are more than the mere sum of what makes them up. Holism also views these "parts" as smaller wholes within wholes. A molecule is made of whole atoms, a cell of whole molecules, an organ of whole cells, a body of whole organs. Each has emergent properties not predictable from the smaller wholes that comprise it. No degree of knowledge about simple chemical elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, and iron would allow us to predict oceans, snowflakes, or water skiers.
To work long-term, management must be holistic. Action within the whole under management affect both the smaller wholes within it, and the larger wholes of which it is part. Over time, small actions can, and often do, add up to enormous cumulative effects -- witness the hole in Earth's ozone layer, for example.
Related terms: Holistic Management
Related pages: "Paradigms and decision-making frameworks"
holistic decision-making - The type of decision-making people do using Holistic Management. Making decisions that are simultaneously socially, financially, and ecologically sound, both short- and long-term.
Holistic Decision Making Association - (HDMA) A Holistic Management association for Australia and New Zealand.
Related pages: HDMA website
Holistic Grazing Planning - Also called planned grazing. Planning livestock grazing to cater simultaneously to many variables: animal performance and breeding cycle, wildlife needs, weather, plant growth rates, dormant periods, droughts, etc. It allows managers to use livestock to create the landscape described in their holistic goal. Compare rotational grazing.
holistic goal - (Also holisticgoal.) In Holistic Management, a long-term, overall blueprint for what you want to create. It has three parts:
A holistic goal only contains what people want, never how to get it.
Related terms: Holistic Management
Related pages: "Setting good goals"
Holistic Management - A process and set of guidelines for making decisions that are simultaneously financially, socially, and ecologically sound, both short- and long-term, and which work to improve people's quality of life. Developed by Allan Savory.
Holistic Management started as a way to restore and maintain damaged ecosystems. Long-term land management always involves:
Early experiments quickly revealed that long-term success in land management depends on people's values and decision-making process far more than it does on specific management techniques or decisions. If you make "good" decisions using a process that doesn't give you adequate feedback, you won't notice or respond appropriately when the situation changes and good management requires changing what you do.
Experience also showed that making good decisions requires managing for the benefit of the whole system, not just its parts. When we manage for the benefit of parts (lowering our weight, increasing livestock productivity, or preserving an endangered species), we often make decisions that have negative effects on the larger whole that the part depends on (our overall health, rangeland health and/or ranch profitability, having an ecosystem that provides everything the endangered species needs). Managing from the perspective of the larger whole helps us avoid this type of problem.
The Holistic Management process thus includes:
Holistic Management has proved extremely effective at healing even severely damaged land, and keeping healthy land from degrading. It is now used for managing groups and companies, and for resolving conflicts, as well as for land management.
Holistic Resource Management - Holistic Management
HRM - Holistic Resource Management, the old name for Holistic Management.
humus - Partially or wholly decomposed organic matter. Humus holds nutrients and gives rich topsoils their dark color.
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